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極端環境實驗

時間:2017-12-26  來源: 文本大小:【 |  | 】  【打印

ESA提議在地球進行兩個獨特實驗:隔離和禁閉研究以及人造重力實驗。以應對人們在類似于長時間的太空飛行任務時所承受的生理及心理壓力。

康科迪亞研究站人因研究——隔離實驗

在南極洲的康科迪亞研究站,冬季四個月里,太陽不超越地平線,溫度低于-70°C,不會有外界補給或救援。生活在極端的隔絕狀態會導致沖突、社會剝奪和績效下降。隔離實驗關注人類從心理、醫學和生理角度的適應,有助于選擇最佳航天員,并在任務行動中融入人因考慮。

旋轉床實驗——短臂離心機

在太空中,航天員受到骨質流失、肌肉萎縮和心血管疾病的危害。在長時間的太空任務中,加入人造重力可能是最有效的解決方案。通過設計巧妙的離心機可以人為地制造重力效果,可同時對所有人類器官系統起作用。

實驗的兩個主要問題是離心機的運轉時間和頻率。ESA資助臥床實驗研究人體如何適應失重狀態。實驗者臥床數月,由醫生定期進行血液采樣和測試,記錄突然坐起的身體反應。

Run Your Experiments in Extreme Cold Isolation or in Bed

Preparing for space means understanding human adaptation to extremes. How do we cope with life in the coldest, darkest and most remote places on Earth? How can we reduce the harmful effects of space on the human body? 

European researchers now have the unique opportunity to propose experiments that tackle the stresses and strains that people endure in conditions similar to long-duration spaceflight missions.

ESA offers to run investigations in two unique areas on Earth to prepare for life in space: isolation and confinement studies, and artificial gravity. 

Concordia and the human factor

Isolation challenge

At the Concordia research station in Antarctica, the crew knows that whatever happens, help will never come during the winter months. For four months, the Sun does not rise above the horizon and temperatures fall below –70°C.

Every year, geologists, astronomers and climate scientists conduct research at this base that looks like it came out of science fiction. Living in extreme isolation can lead to conflicts, social deprivation and a decline in performance.

The current Announcement of Opportunity focuses on human adaptation from a psychological, medical and physiological point of view. Its results will contribute to the selection of the best crews and integration of human factors in mission operations. 

Spinning in your bed?

Short-arm centrifuge

In space, astronauts suffer from bone loss, muscle weakening and cardiovascular deconditioning. Adding artificial gravity to the equation could turn out to be the most effective solution for a healthier body during long-duration space missions.

There are tools to artificially create the effect of gravity, namely by spinning subjects on cleverly designed centrifuges. Artificial gravity is considered an integrated countermeasure because it addresses all human organ systems at once.

“The advantage of artificial gravity is that it has the promising potential of reducing most of the negative effects of weightlessness on the entire human body in one go,” explains Jennifer Ngo-Anh, leading ESA’s human factors research. 

Bedrest study

Two major questions remain open for the scientific community: for how long and how often do you need to keep the centrifuge on. The goal is to find the right combination of artificial gravity, food supplements and exercise.

The most promising ideas will be taken into consideration in the next ESA-sponsored bedrest studies, a way to see how the human body adapts to weightlessness. Participants spend months in bed as doctors take regular blood samples and continuous tests to chart how their body reacts to a sudden sedentary lifestyle.

Scientists are invited to submit their proposals by February 2018. Further information about deadlines, workshops and experiment requirements is available in the dedicated links to the Concordia Announcement of Opportunity and the Bedrest Call for Ideas

 

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